Wednesday, October 13, 2010

ENTHIRAN (ROBOT)-Just a BETA version.

The film is grossing millions in the box office and has set record first week collection of 117 crores,surpassing best box office collection  of movies like 3 idiots and Gajhini.From a South Indian dictating superstar, Rajni Kanth's stature has grown in to a mesmerizing National superstar.But you don' t rate a movie best based upon the collections nor by the star-cast.And in my opinion good movie is the one which pleases your senses and which is a treat to watch  without compromising much towards the commercial elements.

Talking about the movie,the movie opens up with Dr.Vasi in the process of making a Andro-humanoid Robot.Finally he succeeds in making one(chitti) and the first half of the movie is occupied by the antics of the robot when an attempt is made by Dr.Vasi to check how the robot handles outside world.Interestingly  chitti doesn't comply to Asimov's 3 laws since its the ambition of Dr.Vasi to contribute it for a special purpose.Dr.Vasi finds an enemy in his mentor and coz of the troubles given by him to hinder Dr.Vasi's realisation of his ambition vasi decides to give emotional logic and feelings to chitti.

And this turns out to be a real path breaker which leads to unimaginable circumstances.What happens to chitti and Dr.Vasi forms the rest of the story.Many people said Rajni without his usual punches and mannerisms is a plus to the movie.But i guess to ask Rajni to act without  those elements is like asking sachin tendulkar  to bat at No.6.It never pays off,this scientist's role is too ordinary and in that Rajni's role is to merely  yell out at the Robot or to do tiresome dull romance with Aishwarya rai.Dr.Vasi fails to catch the imagination.

But Rajni as Chitti has rocked truly, especially towards the end he has belted out a fantastic performance in the bady robot avatar.If there is something that is completely  flawless in this movie,that has to be  Rajni's acting.Going forward one more plus is the visual effects.It needs a special appreciation and that too towards the climax it at least lives up to the build up given for the movie before the release.With out that movie would have been  much more somber jinx.ARR's music is handy with his usual brilliant numbers and a handy bg score.2.0 bgm towards the end is good.Shankar's meticulous approach shows in some parts like the usage of terms like Robo-sapiens,Andro-humanoid etc etc.

Moving to the negatives of the film i would say there two major components.One,weak storyline with lots of masala, commercial elements and two the build up.Talking about the storyline there is really nothing that is can see lots of scenes inspired from I-Robot(a major part),bit of terminator and some say  from Matrix too.Dr.Bhora's death and the robot taking control looks like  pure adaptation from I-robot.One can't accept that its a sci-fi movie given the fact that it has been stuffed with this much commercialism.(No wonder why few of my friends updated that the movie was not that much good in Facebook after seeing first day show).Its coz of the fact that they  are made to see this half cooked commercial sci-fi flick after they have seen pure breathtaking sci-fi movies.

I wonder when Shankar says this is his 10 years dream.I thought he would have spent lot of time on the story and fine-tuned it.Thought that this would be his Masterpiece considering the repertoire he has.But this is not even close to his first flick gentleman in-terms of script.If the masterstroke had lied in the script then i think this would have forayed into international scene without doubt.His brilliance as an script writer has stopped after Mudhalvan i guess.

Coming to the second part i.e the build up given,i could very well say that has proved to be a niggle  for this movie.Over the top build ups has given a lot of expectations and when the movie doesn't live up to it,it proved to be a negative.More than these build ups about the movie,which one can live with and tolerate,there is one more annoying build up about the production house.In 1940s there was a producer called S.S.Vasan who set up Gemini studio's.He took a film called chandralekha with a budget of $600,000 which can be like 28 million in 2010.Even that great man never would have promoted the film portraying he is the face of the movie.Neither did i hear any other great producers like A.V.Meyyappa chettiyar nor the the likes of yash chopra doing those things.Even the highest budgeted movie King kong had not been promoted in such a way.But here the story is opposite.

Here MD(thats what they call) has been the man most sort after.He hogs limelight similar to Rajni.Another torture is from Sun Tv which -frankly- is quite understandable.They are habituated to give build ups to epic movies like sura,vettaikaran,singam etc etc(mokka padangaluke ipdina?) and why not to a Rajni flick.But they ought to consider that people watching are also human. Man!!! a function for audio release,one for trailer release, documentary for 1 hours on the opening day and the list goes on.(As premji says in saroja tamizh nattu makkalu romba pavam).

The peak is the cheap promotional stunt of Rajni visiting Bal Thackrey and calling him god has gone on to show how low these promotional tactics can go.Rajni in the trailer release said that he was asked to give interviews to north Indian medias as a part of promotion but he said he was embarrased to talk about his own movie.If he has that much unliking towards cheap publicity how the hell on earth he would explain this?.Being a hardcore rajni fan i personally lost my part of respect for him  when he apologised  some goddamn nobody so that his film kuselan can be released in Karnataka following Rajni's remark on Hogenakkal row.What ever...Finally after coming out of theater i knew two things.One this doesn't fall exactly under the genre of sci-fi film may be a kind of beta version of sci-fi commercial.Two this is not the best of Indian Movies absolutely not even near to the best.May be in terms of making and technicalities it might be a step ahead.But not the best Indian movie and all that.

"Rab Ne... " Indeed Rubs the Magic..

One fine evening,two friends chatting and relaxing with a glass of wine in their hands.One of them is a hairstylist and the conversation takes place in his saloon.
"Dude!I got something to say.But tell me that  you won't  say that  to anyone else.TOP SECRET",says one.
The other says, "Not  until i die.I wouldn't tell anyone.Go ahead."
"Ok!(with a wry gentle smile).Love has happened in my life.I'm in love with a girl(Blushing)".
"Wow!!..That is fantastic man.Wonderful.Congratulations.Who is that lucky girl buddy?".
"I'm in love With wife!(With little feelings..)I love her(Rascal enna da peelings.. :p)But sadly she doesn't love me".
"How come??..She has to love you.If she doesn't ,just give her couple of slaps man...",suggests the other friend.
Sounds very strange and stupid.Yes,it is.This is one of the scene from "Rab ne bana di jodi" movie.The story and the logic  might be Hilarius and illogical if you see from the outset .But when i saw, it was really entertaining and enjoyable coz of the fact that it was well presented and well made.I kinda liked some scenes frame by frame.

Surinder shani (Shah Rukh) is a very introverted,soft and silent guy(To the extent that he can not say his love to his wife..C'mmon man,,this is bit too much.. :P)..He works in Punjab power as a clerk.Movie opens up with the marriage ceremony of Thani(Anushka sharma) who is the daughter of Shah Rukh's professor.Earlier the professor starts the marriage talk for tying the nuptial bond between Anushka and Shah Rukh.But he could not since Anushka brushes away this talks by revealing that she  is  in love with some one else.And now Anushka is getting married to the guy she wants. Shah Rukh is invited for the marriage and he sees her, he falls in love at first sight with her.But what to do?.She is gonna be someone's wife in few hours.

Call it fortune or fate Anushka's marriage stops.Fate brings a big twist in the lives of both hero and heroine. The bride groom and his family dies in an accident when arriving to the marriage hall. Anushka's father also suffers cardiac arrest due to this shocking news.In his death bed he asks Shah Rukh to marry Anushka and convinces Anushka for the same.He dies eventually and after that marriage takes place.Anushka is in a awful mindset since in a span of  couple of days everything changed.So for the initial few days she shuts herself in a room and doesn't even talk to SRK.

After few days she realizes that its not fair to show her frustration on SRK and she apologizes for the way she behaved and adds that there is no more love left in her to share with anyone.But poor SRK's love towards her wife grows everyday..Since he is so smitten by Anushka he thinks of the ways in which he can impress her.(the things which he does and the way he sights his wife is so funny..He he.. ).When things were like this Anushka who feels bored staying in home seeks SRK's permission to join a dance class called Dancing Jodi no.1.(OMG... Ingayuma da...)

The  conversation at the start of this post takes place in such a situation.SRK and his friend think that Anushka is not interested in Shah Rukh coz of his Goody-Goody old bear like looks.So the barber friend vows Shah Rukh to give a complete make over.He turns him into a ultramodern guy.After changing the looks he goes to meet Anushka in the dance class and she doesn't recognize him(this is bit cinematic..How come a wife could not identify her husband.Is SRK's barber friend from hollywood to change him completely).SRK uses this edge and joins the dance class pretending that he is someone else(Raj) and tries to win her love.

He says to his friend that he will try to impress her and it will be a Win-Win situation whoever wins(Be it Surinder or Raj).He starts this playfully and as time goes Anushka falls in love with Raj.At one point of time Suinder feels like a loser when he knows that Anushka gets inclined towards Raj.Finally what happens at the end and who was chosen by Anushka,either the boring Surinder or the flirting Raj and whether they win the Jodi No.1 contest or not  forms the rest of the story.

If you just see the story its completely stupid there are many logical loopholes but one thing makes the story all the more interesting and awesome.That is SRK's acting.His intense sentimental  and touching acting as Surinder stands out.The scene in which he talks alone in his friend's  saloon where he challenges the doll(considering him as Raj and the doll as Surinder) that he will make Anushka fall in love with her and at the end where he expresses his desire that he would be the happiest man on earth if he can impress her being the calm and not so entertaining Surinder is one pointer to his good enough performance.The director and the screenplay writer deserve a big pat for this screen writing.

The other portrayal as Raj is good too.His pranks in the dance class and a bit of double meaning dialogues and his mannerisms(the way he  adjusts his pant) are quite comical.But  a bit of overacting can be sensed(But that is OK..It is not so annoying).The parts in which he says sentimental things between his stupid funny pranks proves essential for the film.(It helps him picking up her rite?.So shld b important :P).This role  shows SRK's ability to easily transform to any character with ease.Anushka never looks like a debutant.Anushka's part in which she suffers to make a decision between Surinder and Raj(both SRK) shows that she has some acting ability. She has done he part really well.SRK's friend  also deserves a appreciation.He has done  more than what is expected of him.

Climax of the movie is bit of a surprise.(few said that it was too good but i felt it was somewhat cinematic).Music of the film is good with some good decent number and  the background score too is just good enough.A small bit towards the end 'Tujh Mein Rab Dikhta Hai' sung by Sherya Goshal is truly among the high degree of good music.( loved it a lot).The first half an hour of the movie resembles somewhat like Mani Ratnam's Mouna Ragam.(but this is not so intense  like that).Over all this is truly a good movie to watch according to me.Check it out if possible.

There are a hell lot of things in this world which are completely mysterious and enigmatic.You can never say the reason or logic behind certain things.Have you ever come across a situation in which  you  knew for sure that something is very good but which has been termed or made a debacle by others.Ever scratched and shrinked your head to find the possible reason,which in no way exist according to you, over such matters?.I confronted such a scenario when i watched this movie sometime back.Rab Ne Bana Di Jodi did not create the "Rab"(magic) in the box office was the verdict when movie got released.So i did not watch the movie.But after 6 or 8 months down the line one of my friend said that the movie is worth watching and it was good.So i just got the DVD and checked it out.And after seeing i had to say it was really awesome movie in all possible aspects(I really can't see the reason why it did not do well).I thought it deserved a small appreciation from and thats why i wrote this?.More over i don't wanna write about anything else since i guess the way in which i would write with this mindset will please anyone no matter what i write.


I thought of coming up with this post much earlier but i couldn't,coz of  my tight schedule.I made up mind not to write about movies for a short while since i have written about a lot of movies in the very recent past.In spite of that i wanted to write about this one,since it left a lasting impression in me.And my sick habit of writing anything that touches my heart also is a reason:p :p.Basically i did not plan to see this movie when it got released(i already said my days are hectic) but power cut on a weekend(courtesy T.N.E.B...helllll man :( ) made me to look for an option to kill time.And thats how i decided to watch this movie.After watching i could not say whether it was good or bad but i was sure that the time i spent was worth it.

The film's title  should have been Ranganathan theru instead of Angadi theru since it had brought out the unforayed and unnoticed aspects of  this popular shopping destination of chennaites.(he he..i feel proud to say...Enga area...).When you walk  through this street, you can see  a lot of  people ranging from dedicated shoppers to kids with school bags,college students(both guys and girls :p )probably who had bunked :P college  and finally guys browsing through the street who never have any intention to shop :P :P(there are another set of people which we don't notice and this movie deals with it).You always could sense  a festive ambiance when you visit  this place.But there is always a dark and flip side for everything.Obviously this captivating place also has a cruel flip side and it is brought out in this movie well(ohhh!!! man its miserable to know that these kinda things  really happen).The movie is about a guy from a remote village who takes up a job in a popular textile shop.The movie simply shows how people are treated like herds of sheep in these places.

Lingam i.e Mahesh  is just like any other guy who completes his secondary exams and awaits his results.Fate brings  a huge twist in his life when his father(who is a daily labor) is killed in an accident.Due to this the responsibility of looking after the family falls on Lingam's shoulder and  he is not able to pursue his higher studies though he tops in the examinations.To earn bread and butter for his family he joins popular Senthil Murugan stores as a sales guy.(how people are recruited for this is shown precisely.Typical interview..:P)He moves to Chennai,rather to the popular textile shop with his friend.On the very first day he finds out ,through  the restrictions imposed,that he was caught in hell.

He becomes entirely unhappy when he goes to take lunch on the very first day(conditions are tat worse) and when he is made to sleep in a most congested place anyone could have seen.(really pathetic).But his responsibilities towards the family holds him back.When things were like this he is moved from store room section to the sales section where a demon in the form of supervisor karungali(Director A.Venkatesh) rests.There he meets Kani(Anjali),a prankster who also has similar bunch of sad stories under the belt.After some little fights and revenges love blossoms between these two in a place where even the Indian constitution's basic and fundamental rights were not in effect.How these two cope up the difficulties and how they overcome the sloppy karungali and what happens to their love forms the rest of the story. 

More than the normal romance the scenes which show the brutal treatment makes the film all the more unique.It is quite evident that this is an out and out splendid creation of the director Vasantha Balan.One can sense VB's presence throughout the movie.Full credit goes to him.(right from artist selection to story and making).Kudos for the drive he had to make such a film.(i appreciate the courage).One can also sense the amount of hard work that has gone in.Its quite interesting how the cameraman managed to shoot scenes in Ranganathan street(which is crowded 24 by 7).VB has once more proved that he is a maker of different caliber and one can expect critical acclaim for this film like the one which he got for veyil in cannes.(I feel that veyil is  his masterpiece.That stays my fav)...

Regarding the cast,Mahesh never looks like an debutant and he fits the bill where he has to play a role of a typical guy from south of Tamil nadu(the scene in which he beats up karungali is an apt example).He deserves a big pat.And Anjali has acted well in another off-the-track movie after Tamil M.A(she was awesome whenever she would ask "nejama dhan solriya" in that movie..I liked it :P) .She has one quality which other heroines don't have,which is acting(heroine acting well, rather than to dance and romance around, is definelty rare these days :P :P).If she chooses her roles well she can definelty shine well(the movie in which she acted with Sundar.c was terrible.Don't do such films for heavens sake... :P:P).Director Venkatesh,Pandi had acted very well.Sneha akka :P(tats how she is addresssed in the movie) too had given a neat performance(annachi and the ad shooting scene was quite funny).

This is not a kinda movie which should be judged or categorized but the one which is beyond judgment and criticism.(yet it is said that the movie is doing well in terms of collection) .I think this kinda movies should be watched by everyone(so that people who make good films will come up with more such films).It is better to watch these kinda movies rather than to be tortured by eras and suraas and kuruvis.(OMG give us a break :( ).Few people said they were moved to tears towards the climax when they watched the movie.Moved to tears watching a movie??? must be kidding i thought.But i almost experienced the same when i saw the movie.It was mindblowing(i mean the climax).

Even though the movie  sometimes look like a patho story dumped with too much of sadness, no one can deny the underlying truths and watch worthiness of the movie.The imbalance in the society,where one section spend money out of proportion and the other section which really struggles a lot to earn money for the basic living itself  is wonderfully told through this movie.(Like Sivaji Rajini rich gets richer poor gets poorer...).Hope lot of many good stories springs out from the director like his name.Hats off!!!!And best of luck...Finally one question pops up as usual when you see such movies Where the hell the country is going???...

Why Do i like Vinnai Thandi Varuvaya?

Some one said that The best way to get over a woman is to turn her into literature.Writing books is old school so Simbhu gets over a woman by depicting her on the celluloid screen here.(whether he gets over or not is a different story) This is what VTV is all about.Well,i need not say about the success of the movie,everyone knows it.(I went after 2 weeks of the movie release and it was a near full house crowd that too on a Monday noon,the film is that much successful.).After hearing all the buzz i went to the movie and the rest is as below.

Ethanayo ponnunga irukanga ana nan yen Jessie ah love panren?(There are lot of other girls but y do i love Jessie?) simbhu keeps on asking this question through out the movie in different tones.Trisha is a Malayali girl brought up in Chennai.Simbhu is a typical chennai guy who has completed his mechanical engineering and wanders jobless.(oh my god!!! BE graduates don't get job even in films these days :().But he is good enough to find that his graduation will not fetch him a job and decides to pursue his passion of directing movies.

He  falls in love at first sight with Trisha  who has only seen 5 movies in her lifetime.The funny irony starts here and simbhu has to cross many obstacles to succeed in love  like the 1 year age difference,their religion,Trisha's adamant father and Trisha herself who  is unpredictable and not so clear.At last he proposes her and she right away denies the proposal citing the above reasons and says it would never workout.But the hero who is very determined stalks her all the way to kerala(this is why u should not love a girl from other state,U have to travel a lot :P) and apologizes and  promises to be a  good friend to her.

But to his amazement while talking he senses that she is also in love with him.How Simbhu brings out the hidden love from her,whether he convinces his would-be father-in-law  and what happens to his directorial venture forms the rest of the story.As far as the cast is concerned Simbhu has been adorable through out the film for the first time.(personally i only liked his Kovil and Thotti jaya and it would be good if i don't talk about rest of his films).He has done a great job and he scores as a crazy lover and in the scene in which he meets Trisha in New-york.And the maturity he shows in climax is superb(But i think the credit for this should go to the director).

As far as Trisha is concerned she looks unusually beautiful in this movie.(Like Karthi in Paruthiveeran..Chitthapu Gautam paduthla nadicha Trisha kooda azhaga therivanga pola".Coz the heroines look good when they act in his films like Reema in Minnale, Jothika in kakka kakka.:P :P).She has done well in a character where she has to keep the hero always guessing and she acts well in scenes where she is trapped between love and family.But it looked stupid when she ditches the hero yet it looked pragmatic.(Hero must have said Indha ponnungale ipdi dhan boss).Ganesh the Cameraman of Kakka kakka has lent a good performance especially in the marriage scene in church and in police station where he asks,Thambi Ethanayo ponnunga irukanga..nee yenda Jessie ah love panna??)..It was really funny...

Another strong point of the movie is music...Well,simply you can say that ARR has proved once again  why he got Oscars and why he is celebrated this much...Hosanna and Omana penne were awesome which are my favorites( the locations and picturisation are good).But when i watched the movie i also liked Mannipaya (sherya Ghosal was at her best as usual) because of the feel and the situation in which it comes.Before when i heard it in home i thought it was a overdose of melody and i felt it was just good.

And finally the show-stealer is Gautam(seems he has a lot of knowledge in this subject :P and shows great comprehension about people and their nature).It is not because he has given a hit or a enjoyable movie  but for the way he penned the story and the dialogues. Story is so simple no big twists and turns ,no exaggerations and no non sense. More over it reflects real life and it can be easily related to real life.He has showed what love does to a guy's life.(Finally Simbu's character must be saying unna love pannadhuku oru padam eduthathu dhan micham).

The tag-line of the movie says that its a different love story but what i think is its a story about love.He has showed how love is approached by people these days.And one more reason why i liked this movie is because of dialogues (not all of them but some stood out from the rest). Especially the questions Simbhu asks when Trisha says that her parents are looking  alliance for her and the scene in which he proposes,their meeting in New-york. And many other one liners were really good.

As i said its a simple feel good movie and you will like it for sure if you like practical movies and if you go with out any big expectations.Its about  how a guy struggles to get over a girl and how a girl easily gets over a guy.This is  one more feather to Gautam's cap and a breakthrough for Simbhu and awesome treat for viewers.Finally what i asked is There are many films which i watched this week but why do i like VTV a lot?(it was a kinda question that popped up and i picked it for the title as well :))

EERAM- A Spine Chilling Thriller

This year a sort of drought hit Tamil cinema.Eventhough few breath-taking movies like Nan Kadavul and yavarum nalam got released ,the first 8 months were a kinda frustration in which we saw total craps (almost 90% movies killed us) in the name of movies ...I was made to use words like rubbish and the four letter word most often..But that drought was brought to an end by a fiery-monsoon like movie Eeram (this drenched total kollywood making sure tat cine industry got out of tat drought.)UPO was also amazing and i yelled out "awesome" when i watched that movie.Coming back to Eeram i was totally speechless when i was watching it in theatre...I cud not say anything out of total awe and the thrill factor...And when i came out of theatre i
just thought " WOW,WHAT A MOVIE"...

I would say that the movie was an adrenaline pumping affair(evil deads and grudges should beg before this).Some film-makers spend crores n crores like water to make Hollywood like movies but the crew of Eeram spent only water(with minimum budget) to make a movie which is even beyond Hollywood level(i mean this is a kinda movie which is universal)..Anyone will like it provided they have a good taste for good movies...The movie kicks off with the death of the lead lady Ramya (Sindhu Menon)...The ACP,Vasudevan (Adhi of Mirugam fame) comes to the spot and to his frustration he finds his Ex-lover(because she is now married )dead there with a letter written by her(which states that nobody is responsible for her death)...So his affection on take up the case even though it looks like a suicide ...In the due course of investigation he comes across neighbors negative opinion about Ramya..His hunch says tha some thing is wrong somewhere and there is a mystery in Ramya's death...

To prove his instinct right four other murders take place in the same block of that apartment...And suddenly Vasu finds the peolple murdered were connected to Ramya in one or the other way and to our amazement he also finds that murder weapon is H2o that is water... The way in which water was used in those murder sequences was simply superb...Finally how Aadhi unwraps the mystery of Ramya's death with the help of Ramya forms the rest of the story..yeah you heard it right.ACP Vasudevan solves the mystery with the help of dead Ramya(check out how in theatre) and finds out the resason behind her death...I should say some standout horror scenes made the film more interesting...The murder scene of Mr.X(one of the character movie) grips u with fear (It reminds final destination but this is not a copy or replica)and the scene in which Aadhi encounters dead Ramya thro' Ramya's sis (Saranya Mohan) is also thrilling.And some romantic scenes and the scene in which Aadhi talks about his marrige with Ramya's father are good...

The scene where Aadhi goes and meets Nandh after knowing the truth gives a mass appeal... Having said this i must also say that Nandha's friend character's city life theory sucks to the core.. Some formula scenes were also there in 2nd half...But the marvel of the movie makes u overlook those flaws.The strong points which worked well were the cinematography,VFX,music and some really good innovation...The cameraman really is the hero of the movie,without his contribution Eeram would have been another boring thriller...VFX has worked in tandem with the camera making the movie much more professional.Music by Thaman is outstanding.Off late I'm humming the tracks Tharai irangiya and Mazhaiye mazhaye often...Background score is just threatening...And the innovative ideas like using water in all scenes in relevance to the title and breaking the usual ghost image in tamil cinemas (i mean white saree,malliga poo and age old patho song nane varuven like stuffs were not there.A big thanks for tat) has given an advantage to the movie...

Director of the movie is Arivazhagan(Neenga unmayilaye Arivali than Mr.Arivu...Keep it up..Hats off..).. And definitely Shankar deserves a big pat for producing this movie.If u note almost 75% of movies he has produced were world class ( Kadhal,Veyil which was screened in Cannes and this movie).Shankar it will be better if u leave direction and take up production as full time job...Talking about the cast,Aadhi has done a fabulous job..It doesn't seem this is only his second film..He is a good prospect and if he plays his cards right he ll make it big...Sindhu menon has lent a powerful performance.can'tbelieve the same girl who played a supporting role in the Movie Youth has managed a comeback,that too with this kinda stunning performance..(Mr.vijay unga kooda nadichavanga ellam nalla nadika arambchutanga..Hmmm..pathu pannunga...).Her innocence when she confesses her previous love to her husband is well portrayed..Nandha is another plus for the movie...He played the pschopath to perfection...The oneliners he used were catchy and gives new look to his character....Saranya Mohan has done her little part well..

Finally for guys like us the film has something to teach" if u pick up a figure she ll take ticket for you in Bus"...(osi ticket guarantee :P)..And don't go with a friend who tries to flirt with his lady love in bus....(Busla eruvanunga eranguvanunga ennamo comedylam pannuvanga like Aadhi in this film :p).When i went into the theatre it was was still raining when i came out of theatre but this time i was little scared of seeing the rain...(thats what Eeram's effect is...)